Glossary

Biological Value (BV):

BV is a measure of protein quality. BV measures the amount of protein retained in the body per gram of protein consumed.

BCAA:

Whey protein is the richest known source of branched chain amino acids (BCAA) which are essential for muscle activity and repair. They are also essential for the supply of glutamine (the main fuel of the immune system).

Cross Flow Micro Filtration:

Removal of residual fat, denatured protein and microbial debris, by the use of membrane filtration. The characteristics of the membrane have been specially selected to allow the soluble protein to pass through, while holding back the unwanted and insoluble components.

Cross Flow Ultra Filtration:

Concentration of protein by the use of membrane filtration. The characteristics of the membrane have been selected to retain the protein, while allowing the other components (lactose, minerals, non-protein nitrogen) to pass through.

Denaturation:

A normally irreversible change in the structure of protein caused by heat, acid, alkali or other agents, which can result in coagulation and reduction in solubility. Denatured proteins lose biological activity but not nutritional value.

Fast and slow proteins:

is relates to the speed of absorption by the gut of amino acids derived from dietary proteins.  Casein and whey protein are both components of milk protein but are very different in function. Casein protein clots in the stomach, which delays gastric emptying and results in a slower release of amino acids to the gut. Whey protein on the contrary is a soluble protein and is released quickly into the gut. As a result dietary amino acid absorption is faster with whey protein than with casein protein. (Ref: Boirie et al. 1997 Proc Natl, Acad. Sci. 94:14930-14935). 

Glutathione:

A tripeptide, y-glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine (GSH). Important for protection against oxidative damage, since it can be oxidised to the disulphide compound (GSSG), which can then be reduced back to active glutathione.

Glycomacropeptide:

A heterogeneous fraction of peptides formed by the action of rennet on casein. This protein fraction exhibits useful biological activities including added protection from some pathogens and regulation of the immune system.

Ion-exchange:

Removal of protein from whey through chemical binding to specially developed resins. The binding is reversible via pH adjustment, and the protein in the eluted material is subsequently concentrated via ultra filtration. Most commercial resins capture all the major whey protein fractions with the exception of glycomacropeptide (GMP) which is lost.

PDCAAS (Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score):

This method to assess protein quality was introduced by the FAO/WHO in 1991 and is now internationally approved & recognised. In brief, PDCAAS is based on the combination of an age-related amino acid reference pattern that is representative of human requirements plus estimates of the digestibility of the protein (Ref: Milward et al. 2008. AJCN 87 (Suppl.) 1576S-81S.

Sarcopenia:

The loss of muscle mass and strength that occurs with aging. It contributes significantly to the development of frailty and functional impairment in older age. (Ref: Bales & Ritchie, 2002 Ann. Rev. Nutr. 22: 309-323

Satiety:

Refers to the inhibition of hunger and further eating that arises as a consequence of eating food, it determines the length of time between meals, by determining initiation of the next meal (Ref: Westerterp-Plantenga in Food, diet and obesity, ed Mela, 2005, Woodhead Pub. Ltd)